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    All about Sorghum


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    Sorghum
    Scientific classification
    Kingdom:Plantae
    (unranked):Angiosperms
    (unranked):Monocots
    (unranked):Commelinids
    Order:Poales
    Family:Poaceae
    Subfamily:Panicoideae
    Tribe:Andropogoneae
    Genus:Sorghum
    L.
    Species
    About 30 species, see text
    Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, one of which is raised for grain and many of which are used as fodder plants, either cultivated or as part of pasture. The plants are cultivated in warmer climates worldwide. Species are native to tropical and subtropical regions of all continents in addition to the southwest Pacific and Australasia. Sorghum is in the subfamilyPanicoideae and the tribe of Andropogoneae (the tribe of big bluestem and sugar cane).

    CONTENTS

    CULTIVATION AND USES

    A sorghum field in Central America.
    One species, Sorghum bicolor,[1] is an important world crop, used for food (as grain and insorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses"), fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, and biofuels. Most varieties are drought- and heat-tolerant, and are especially important in arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people. These varieties form important components of pastures in many tropical regions. Sorghum bicolor is an important food crop inAfricaCentral America, and South Asia and is the "fifth most important cereal crop grown in the world".[2]
    Some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanidehordenine and nitrates lethal to grazing animals in the early stages of the plant's growth. When stressed by drought or heat, plants can also contain toxic levels of cyanide and/or nitrates at later stages in growth.[3]
    Another Sorghum species, Johnson grass (S. halapense), is classified as an invasive species in the US by the Department of Agriculture.[4]
    Sorghum vulgare var. technicum is commonly called broomcorn.[5]

    SPECIES

    • Sorghum almum
    • Sorghum amplum
    • Sorghum angustum
    • Sorghum arundinaceum
    • Sorghum bicolor — cultivated sorghum, often individually called sorghum. Also known as durra, jowari or milo.
    • Sorghum brachypodum
    • Sorghum bulbosum
    • Sorghum burmahicum
    • Sorghum ecarinatum
    • Sorghum exstans
    • Sorghum grande
    • Sorghum halepense — Johnson grass
    • Sorghum interjectum
    • Sorghum intrans
    • Sorghum laxiflorum
    • Sorghum leiocladum
    • Sorghum macrospermum
    • Sorghum matarankense
    • Sorghum nitidum
    • Sorghum plumosum
    • Sorghum propinquum
    • Sorghum purpureosericeum
    • Sorghum stipoideum
    • Sorghum timorense
    • Sorghum trichocladum
    • Sorghum versicolor
    • Sorghum verticiliflorum
    • Sorghum vulgare var. technicum  — broomcorn

    HYBRIDS

    • Sorghum × almum
    • Sorghum × drummondii

    SORGHUM GENOME

    In 2009, a team of international researchers announced they had sequenced the sorghum genome.[6][7]

    SEE ALSO

    REFERENCES

    1. ^ Mutegi, Evans; Fabrice Sagnard, Moses Muraya, Ben Kanyenji, Bernard Rono, Caroline Mwongera, Charles Marangu, Joseph Kamau, Heiko Parzies, Santie de Villiers, Kassa Semagn, Pierre Traoré, Maryke Labuschagne (2010-02-01). "Ecogeographical distribution of wild, weedy and cultivated Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench in Kenya: implications for conservation and crop-to-wild gene flow". Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 57 (2): 243–253. doi:10.1007/s10722-009-9466-7.
    2. ^ Sorghum, U.S. Grains Council.
    3. ^ Cyanide (prussic acid) and nitrate in sorghum crops - managing the risks. Primary industries and fisheries. Queensland Government.http://www.dpi.qld.gov.au/4790_20318.htm. 21 April 2011.
    4. ^ Johnson Grass, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Accessed 2257 UDT, 12 March, 2009.
    5. ^ Broomcorn, Alternative Field Crops Manual, Purdue University, Accessed 14 Mar 2011.
    6. ^ Sequencing of sorghum genome completed EurekAlert, January 28, 2010, Retrieved August 30, 2010
    7. ^ Paterson, A.; Bowers, J.; Bruggmann, R.; Dubchak, I.; Grimwood, J.; Gundlach, H.; Haberer, G.; Hellsten, U. et al. (2009). "The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses". Nature 457 (7229): 551–556. Bibcode 2009Natur.457..551P.doi:10.1038/nature07723PMID 19189423. edit

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